Depending on who is using the term, hacktivism can be a politically constructive form of anarchist civil disobedience or an undefined anti-systemical gesture; it can signal anticapitalist or political protest; it can denote anti-spam activists, security experts, or open source advocates. Critics of hacktivism fear that the lack of a clear agenda makes it a politically immature gesture, while those given to conspiracy theory hope to see in hacktivism an attempt to precipitate a crisis situation online. Hacktivism is a portmanteau [jargon] of hack and activism. This leads to a controversy of meaning because both the terms Hacker and Activism are both morally broad terms. Hacking has come to mean both "illegally breaking into computers" and "elegant computer programming". Activism similarly includes both explicitly non-violent action and violent revolutionary activities. which is assumed then hacktivism could be defined as "the nonviolent use of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends". These tools include web site defacements, redirects, denial-of-service attacks, information theft, web site parodies, virtual sit-ins, virtual sabotage, and software development. It is often understood as the writing of code to promote political ideology - promoting expressive politics, free speech, human rights, or information ethics. Acts of hacktivism are carried out in the belief that proper use of code will be able to produce similar results to those produced by regular activism or civil disobedience. The recent example is hacking FaceBook like high profile social network. Hacktivismo is an offshoot of Cult of the Dead Cow; its beliefs include access to information as a basic human right, they are the loose network of programmers, artists and privacy in an era of increased technological surveillance.
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